Личный кабинет

Педсовет полностью переехал на новую платформу. Некоторое время понадобится для отладки сервиса. Пожалуйста, о любых Ваших сложностях и ошибках сообщите в редакцию по адресу [email protected] 

 

Креативное письмо. Правило написания рассказа


Под «креативным письмом» подразумеваются упражнения продуктивного характера различной степени сложности, разнообразные по форме и содержанию, часто имеющие игровую форму. Эти упражнения выполняются в письменной форме, по своему содержанию носят речевой творческий или полутворческий характер.

В современной английской методике обучения письму и письменной речи на иностранном языке получает распространение технология креативного письма. Под «креативным письмом» подразумеваются упражнения продуктивного характера различной степени сложности, разнообразные по форме и содержанию, часто имеющие игровую форму. Эти упражнения выполняются в письменной форме, по своему содержанию носят речевой творческий или полутворческий характер. К сожалению, традиционная система образовательного учреждения не только не направлена на развитие личности обучающегося, его творческих способностей, раскрытие индивидуальности каждого, но зачастую препятствует этому, “блокирует” проявление творческой активности. В результате творческие стремления просто угасают. В связи с этим обозначается педагогическая проблема обеспечения условий творческой реализации обучающихся. Возможность создания таких условий мы видим в системе дополнительных занятий со способными одаренными детьми и детьми, имеющими высокие образовательные потребности в области филологии.  Эти занятия — это система свободного избрания деятельности обучающегося, выражающаяся в удовлетворении его интересов, предпочтении, склонностей и способствующая его самореализации, культурной и социальной адаптации. Выявляя таких учеников, создавая условия для их развития, мы стараемся уходить от традиционных форм обучения, вводим новые технологии, чаще создаем ситуации творческого проявления, которые будут содействовать эффективному формированию и развитию не только предметных, но и метапредметных компетенций современного ученика. Вашему вниманию предлагается отрывок из пособия для обучающихся и учителя, созданное участниками проблемно-творческой группы учителей английского языка города Магнитогорска. Данный отрывок рассказывает о правилах и особенностях написаниях рассказа. Автор отрывка  - Серова Елена Михайловна, учитель МАОУ СОШ №56 УИМ города Магнитогорска.

Расска́з или нове́лла (итал. novella — новость) — основной жанр малой повествовательной прозы. Автора рассказов принято именовать новеллистом, а совокупность рассказов — новеллистикой.

Рассказ или новелла — более краткая форма художественной прозы, нежели повесть или роман. Восходит к фольклорным жанрам устного пересказа в виде сказаний или поучительного иносказания и притчи. По сравнению с более развёрнутыми повествовательными формами в рассказах не много действующих лиц и одна сюжетная линия (реже несколько) при характерном наличии какой-то одной проблемы.


Большинство рассказов имеют 3 - 4 части. Учащимся младшего – среднего звена можно предложить традиционное деление на начало, середину и конец. Необходимо помочь учащимся выделить в рассказе эти 3 элемента. Обсудите с ними, что такое начало рассказа, как сделать его интересным. Предложите несколько вариантов начала рассказа. Определите главных героев и сюжетную линию. Затем выделите середину рассказа. Выясните, что же самое главное, что случилось с героями истории. И каков же конец? Был ли конец добрым или нет? Почему?

 

Для учащихся старшего звена задача усложняется. Рассказ делится на 4 части: в первой читатель знакомится с героями, местом и временем событий, во второй – определяется круг событий, предшествующих создавшейся ситуации, в третьей части автор ставит перед главным героем проблему и в заключительной части описывает способы разрешения её, чувства и реакцию героев либо события, следующие за разрешением проблемы.

 

Прежде чем приступить к написанию рассказа определите

  • героев вашего рассказа: какие они по характеру, чем занимаются. Не стоит перечислять все черты характера персонажа, достаточно двух-трёх, попробуйте передать характер героя через его походку, речь или поступки. Не забудьте от какого лица (первого или третьего) ведётся повествование.
  • место действия: где всё происходит
  • время действия, а также время повествования (настоящее или прошлое). Большинство рассказов пишутся с использованием глаголов прошедшего времени (Past Simple для описания основных событий/ Past Continuous для развития событий и Past Perfect для описаний предшествующих событий).
  • события, в которых принимают участие герои и проблемы. Которые они решают
  • каким будет разрешение данной проблемы

 

Главные вопросы, которые могут быть заданы на подготовительном этапе работы: Кто? Где? Что? Как? Почему?

 

Используйте

 

  • привлекающий внимание \ интригующий читателя заголовок (a title)
  • прямую речь вместо скучного пересказа: Он сказал, что …особенно если речь идёт об эмоциях «Oh, no!» I said to myself
  • разнообразные глаголы, служащие для передачи информации (say, tell, ask, scream, think, cry, promise, order, whisper, reply, shout)
  • описательные прилагательные (sparkling, old-fashioned, graceful, bewildered, crooked, hilly, husky, melodic, etc) \ наречия (calmly\ softly\kindly, etc)
  • вводные слова (At first, one day, once there was .., many years ago, then, eventually, later, a little later, meanwhile, shortly afterwards, the following night, after a while, finally, in the end, when it was all over, etc)
  • соединительные союзы (and, but, so, for, yet)
  • слова-связки (however, nevertheless, although)
  • средства драматической выразительности (Suddenly, al of a sudden, without warning, just like that, just at the moment, out of the blue

 

Закончив работу, проверьте:

  • есть ли у работы заголовок
  • соответствует ли объём заданному
  • все ли предложения начинаются с заглавных букв
  • нет ли пропущенных слов \ букв
  • верны ли грамматические структуры

 

Example

Autumn jazz
That evening I was playing “English Waltz”. It was easy and not long but breathtakingly beautiful composition, which always helped me to relieve tension after an exhausting day full of emotions.

 Today was a Big day. We had an audition for the national competition which will be held in Austria. After an improvised inspiring concert my teacher “threatened me” that I will play on the stage in front of all of the critics as I`m incredibly talented. Any other girl would be happy to hear that but I`ve always been shy and never cried for attention. But I decided to stop being afraid! Just stop! Feeling absolutely free I laughed and agreed to take part in the Austrian jazz concert without any hesitation.

As soon as I arrived home I checked my Facebook profile. You know all of young people are addicted to the social networks and we can do NOTHING, just nothing with it.  Lessons, dinner, everything can wait.

On Facebook I found a new friend and a message. Looking at the first photo I realized that I know this boy Denis who has been playing saxophone as long as I do… Funny, 2 years ago I was even in love with him. I can say for sure that he wasn`t beautiful, but he had an incredibly charming emerald eyes and shy friendly smile. Not his appearance but his alluring charisma attracted me like the light draws a firefly.

He was gifted, even won the National competition last year; his father was a saxophonist too. Actually I know about him a lot. Or at least I knew. Two years ago.

My hands were shaking when I opened the message. “You performed today incredibly professional! I didn`t think that you could be my contender. I`d like to play with you”

I asked with my usual sarcastic grin “Play what?”

The answer arrived immediately. A winking smile.  Excellent, he still has a good sense of humor.

I quickly typed “Tomorrow wait me at 7 pm in our class”

“Ok” - He definitely never wears his heart on his sleeve.

The next day he was sitting in the back of the class whistling a merry song when I came.

- Hey – smiled he broadly.

- Heeey- laughed I back. Our dialog looked like the battle “Who is more charming?”

- Do you really have the saxophone Brahner – asked he a little bit astonished and even with an expression of disapproval on his face.

- What? No! Just the seller in the shop mixed up the cases. I have Trevor James!

- Trevor James?! Really?! Can I try? – said Den with wide eyes like The Cat from Shrek.

I obediently gave him my saxophone and he played my favorite composition.

-I have Yamaha, but I want Trevor James too now! - laughed Denis happily and looked into my eyes.
- May be we can start playing? – asked I to ruin the prolonged pause.

- Yeah

He chose the most difficult part whereas I was playing the most beautiful. We were making fun at each other but our jokes were kind and we didn’t notice how the lesson turned into frivolous chatting. The result astonished us: we made something beautiful and professional. I guess if you want to have an amazing duet you have to feel something to your partner…

An hour later we were walking in the street and talking about everything in the world. We admired stars in the sky and smelled the scent of cinnamon rolls and coffee.

-Look, there is a café out there – pointed I to a nice little coffee house round the corner.

- Wanna come?  I`m hungry and I`m sure you are too.

In a little basement room was an elusive atmosphere of America in 1930s. Jazz, coffee, businessmen in black jackets talking to elegant women in dresses…

A couple minutes later the Luis Armstrong`s song “Go down” started to play. My favorite song…

I couldn`t help snapping fingers to the beat. Then I decided not to hold back my emotions and began dancing in the space between the small cozy tables. But an angry look of the waiter made me submissively return to my seat. Denis was laughing. Maybe I was born to become a comedian but I chose music.

 Denis was telling me stories but I didn`t listen to him any more: I was watching his gestures and facial expressions, his happy looks, just listening to his deep voice.

It sounds too sweet: autumn, love, jazz. Need to dilute. Definitely!

And I ordered myself a cup of black strong espresso.

 

Exercise 1

Choosing interesting vocabulary helps to make your writing more descriptive. For each word be low, write as many other words as you can t hat mean almost the same but that are more descriptive. Compare you r answers wit h your partner.

Good: fantastic, great, …

Bad: awful, terrible, horrible, …

Say: whisper, …

Look: glance, stare ,…..

Beautiful: handsome, pretty, …

Big:

Walk:

Clever:

Happy:

 

Exercise 2

Use more adverbs

Adverbs often describe how something is done. Complete the sentences using ad verbs from the box. Which sentences might have more than one answer?

Cleverly    nervously     proudly     bravely    angrily     gently     excitedly

 

1 Jill ______________ showed her parents the prize she had won.

2 Alice lifted the baby up ____________ and held him in her arms.

3 George shouted ______________ at his brother and ran out of the house.

4 Emma opened the letter ____________ and began to read.

S Rita waited ____________ outside the headmaster's office.

6 Paul _________________ fixed the problem with my computer and we surfed the internet.

7 Mr Simpson  _______________ decided to go back into the burning house.

 

Exercise 3

 

Write a paragraph

These two paragraphs come from a story. The middle paragraph is missing. Write a paragraph of about 40 words describing Karen to complete the story. Try to use adjectives, adverbs and interesting words.

 

   Everybody knew that a new girl was starting at our school.

We had heard that her name was Karen. The desk next to me was empty and I knew she would probably sit there. When I got to school on Monday morning. I quickly hung my coat up and went to my desk. There was the new girl. She was ...

………

 

Lessons started and I found out that she was excellent at Maths. She even helped me with one or two of the problems". I knew we were going to be great friends from that day on.

 

Exercise 4

 

Your teacher has asked you to write a story for the school's English language magazine.

It must begin with the following words:

When I first saw Louise, I got completely the wrong impression of her.

 

Before writing answer the following questions, using your imagination.

 

  • Who is Louise? _
  • What does she look like? _
  • What is her character like? _
  • Where did you meet her? _
  • What day was it? _
  • What was the weather like? _
  • What was you r first impression of he r? _
  • Why was it wrong? _
  • Do you still see her now? _
  • Where? _
  • Are you good friends? _
  • How do you fee l about he r? _

 

You may discuss your ideas with your partner \ class. Write a story.

 

Exercise 5

 

Each of these stories should be written in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.

1 You have decided to enter a short story competition. The competition rules say that the story

must begin with the following words:

As the door slowly opened, I was surprised to see Tom standing there.

Write your story for the competition.

2 Your school magazine has asked students to write a series of stories. Each story must begin with the last sentence of the previous story. You have been asked to write the next story, which must begin with the following words:

Martina knew she would never be the same after everything that had happened.

Write your story.

 Remember:

When you are writing a story, make sure you know whether the sentence they have given

you has to go at the beginning or the end of your story. You are not allowed to change the sentence you are given in any way.

 

Exercise 6

 

Order the events

Here's a brief summary of another short story. Read the summary and number the events (A-G) from 1-7, in the order in which they happened.

 

Pip has an accident while riding his bike. and makes a new friend in hospital.

 

A Pip waking up in his hospital bed

В Pip meeting his new friend

C Pip being taken to hospital

D what happened after Pip left hospital _ _

E what Pip was doing before the bike accident

F the bike accident

G Pip having an operation

 

Now separate the story into three parts. Then write the numbers1 ~7 next to the three parts.

 

Beginning:

Middle:

End:

 

Exercise 7

 

Match the examples

 

Here are five examples. Write what tenses (Past Simple, Past Progressive, Past Perfect)were used to each example and what the tense is being used for in the story.

 

A __ Finally, the plane touched down on the runway. We were safe.

B __ As she was flying to London, she suddenly realised that she had left her notes on the kitchen table.

C __ He stood on the platform. It was raining, and the sky was darkening rapidly.

D __ We were pulled over by the police while we were driving through Paris.

E _ _ It was a fantastic ride. I had never been in a helicopter before.

 

Exercise 8

Read the following parts of the story and put them in the correct order.

A

In the middle of the game my brother said,”I heard a great joke yesterday” and he told me the joke. I actually cannot remember what the joke was now, but it was very funny. When he finished telling me the joke, I started to laugh. And I couldn't stop laughing. I laughed and laughed and laughed. First, I fell off my chair. Then, because I was laughing so much, I hit the table with my arm.

B

A GAME, A JOKE AND A TERRIBLE MESS

C

“Stop!” shouted my brother, but it was too late. The table was broken, and everything on it fell on the floor – our chess game, two glasses of orange juice, and our mobile phones. It was terrible!

D

When our mother came in, I was still laughing! Then my brother started to laugh too. We both stood laughing as our mother looked at us, and everything on the floor.

E

Two weeks ago, I was at home with my brother Greg. It was Saturday, but because it was raining outside, we were playing chess in the living room.

                                                                                                      

Exercise 9

A travel agency is organizing a short story contest. To enter it, you should write a good story about an exciting trip. Your story must begin like this:

From the very beginning of her trip Anna knew it would be ….....

 

Before writing answer t he following questions using your imagination.

Discuss your answers with th e class.

1 How old is Anna? _

2 Is she going alone? I f not, who is she with? _

3 Where does her trip start? ~ ~ _

4 Where is she going to? _

5 Why is she making this trip? _

6 Which means of transport does she use? _

7 What kind of trip does she think it will be? _

8 What events happen on the journey to make it (exciting\ boring\ unforgettable? _

9 How does she feel at the end of th e journey? _

Write your summary. In one or two sentences, write a summary of what your story is about .

Divide your story. Now put t he events into three parts. Write notes on t he lines provided.

 

Think of a title

 

Beginning:

 

Middle:

 

End:

 

 

Exercise 10

You are going to take part in a short story competition. Your story must begin like this:

  1. As John got off the train, he couldn't believe how cold it was.
  2. I was alone in a dark road. Suddenly I saw bright lights in a distance.
  3. My friend works as an IT technician and was on location at Cardiff High School last December. He was waiting for a windows installation to finish and was looking out of the library window …
  4. Once on my way to school, I saw a man walking down the street while shaving with an electric razor, which seemed to me quite extraordinary. I was very curious and followed him. What I saw in a while surprised me even more.

 

Добавлено: 11.04.2016
Рейтинг: 7.94
Комментарии:
1
footer logo © Образ–Центр, 2015. 12+