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Обучение видам чтения

Виды чтения на уроке английского языка


В данной статье рассматриваются три вида чтения относительно текстов на английском языке. Предлагаются тексты, связанные с реальностью и ряд упражнений для развития навыков каждого вида чтения.

Обучение видам чтения на уроке английского языка

 

Чтение – это рецептивный вид речевой деятельности, связанный с извлечением информации через зрительный канал. В основе этого вида речевой деятельности лежат умения, связанные с извлечением поступающей информации.

Розов О.А. писал: “чтение представляет собой чрезвычайно сложный процесс, характеризующийся громадным объемом подсознательной работы мозга”.

В процессе обучения иностранным языкам чтение выполняет две функции:

  • чтение является целью обучения, т.е. является видом речевой деятельности (средство извлечения информации)
  • чтение – это средство обучения другим видам речевой деятельности. Но чтобы стать средством, чтение должно стать целью, ибо всяким средством необходимо владеть хорошо.

Зрелое умение читать предполагает как владение всеми видами чтения, так и легкость перехода от одного его вида к другому в зависимости от изменения цели получения информации из данного текста.

По целевой направленности деятельности выделяют следующие виды чтения:

  1. ознакомительное
  2. изучающее
  3. поисковое

Поисковое чтение (scanning) в реальной жизни мы используем, когда просматриваем телевизионную программу или рекламный проспект, знакомимся с меню, оглавлением книги, ищем незнакомое слово в словаре, номер телефона в справочнике, товар в каталоге, информацию о прибытии поезда на табло железнодорожного вокзала и т.п.

Чтение информативных текстов научно-популярного и общественно-политического характера, таких как: страничка в Интернете, статья в газете, доклад на научной конференции, как правило начинается с ознакомления с их общим содержанием. Для того чтобы определить основную идею текста читателю необходимо применить умение ознакомительного чтения (skimming).

Часто в повседневной жизни нам важно получить подробную информацию об интересующем нас явлении или событии, что требует владения умением читать с полным пониманием содержания (intensive reading). Обычно таким образом мы читаем художественную литературу (рассказы, стихи, сказки и т.п.), научно-популярные статьи, инструкции, рецепты, письма, книги по специальности и т.п. Данный вид чтения предполагает, что читатель может остановиться на заинтересовавших его отрывках, перечитать и проанализировать их, сделать выводы.

Очевидно, что не каждый текст может быть использован для развития определенных умений чтения, то есть в учебной ситуации при выборе текста следует исходить из умений, над развитием которых работает учитель и его ученики в рамках изучаемой темы.

Например, в реальной жизни программу телепередач мы чаще всего читаем для того, чтобы узнать время, когда начинается интересующая нас передача (поисковое чтение). Используя следующую программу:

Текст № 1.

Saturday 22 September

BBC1

BBC2

CHANNEL 4

7.00 Planet Saturday: Little Bear (R) (T) (S) 7.30 Brum (R) (T) (S) 7.40 Fix and Foxi (R) (T) (S) 7.50 Gadget Boy (R) (T) (S) 8.15 Rugrats (R) (T) (S) 8.40 Flint the Time Detective (T) (S) 9.00 The Saturday Show (T) (S) 12.00 Football Focus

12.50 ВВС News (T)

1.00 Grandstand: 1.10 Racing from Newbury. 1.20 Rugby Union Build-Up. 1.40 Racing. 1.50 Rugby Union Build-Up. 2.05 Racing. 2.20 Rugby Union Build-Up. 2.40 Racing. 2.50 Six Nations Rugby Union. 3.45 Football Half-Times. 3.55 Six Nations Rugby Union. Times may vary. (T) (S)

4.45 Final Score. 5.35 News; Weather (T) 5.50 Regional News; Sport

5.55 Jim Davidson's Generation Game (T) (S)

6.50 Dog Eat Dog Ulrika Jonsson hosts the challenge show. (T) (S)

7.30 The National Lottery: Winning Lines Phillip Schofield introduces the lottery-based quiz show. (T) (S)

6.10 Open University

8.00 Weekend 24. News. (S) 9.00 Well Connected 9.30 The Ad Factor (T) 10.00 Well Connected 10.05 Big Money in Kentucky (T) 10.35 Open Advice Shorts: Feedback. With Newcastle United goalkeeper Steve Harper. (T) 10.40 See Hear! On Saturday (S)

11.25 The Sky at Night (R) (T) (S) 11.45 Holiday Snaps (T) (S) 12.00 Stingray (R) (T) 12.25 The Natural World (R) (T)

1.15 FILM: A Double Life (1947) An actor playing Othello becomes obsessed with the role, triggering a real-life tragedy. Oscar-winning theatrical drama, starring Ronald Colman. (T) ***

2.55 FILM: The Treasure of Pancho Villa (1955) The story of a 1915 gold-train robbery masterminded by the infamous Mexican bandit. Action adventure, starring Rory Calhoun and Shelley Winters. (T) *

5.15 FILM: To Hell and Back (1955) Second World War biopic (T)**

5.55 Animal Alphabet (R) (T) 5.58 The Clangers (R) (T)

6.05 The Hoobs (R) (T) 6.35 Blue's Clues (T) 7.00 Offshore Powerboating 7.30 Motorsport on 4: The Rally Masters 8.00 Trans World Sport (T) 9.00 The Morning Line 10.00 Football Italia 11.00 Motorsport on 4: Speedway Grand Prix (T) 12.00 Happy Days (R) (T) 1.00 Little House on the Prairie (R) (T)

2.00 Racing from Ayr and Newmarket

5.10 Brookside. Omnibus. Jackie continues to make amends with Jimmy. (T)

6.35 Channel 4 News Including sport and weather. (T)

7.10 Tek Sing Treasure-hunter Michael Hatcher and maritime historian Nigel Pickford search for the wreck of the fabled Tek Sing, a Chinese boat said to have sunk in 1822 carrying a precious cargo. (R) (T)

8.10 I'm Not Racist, But Channel 4 begins a season called How racist is Britain? with the results of a survey canvassing white opinion.

 

Key: Brookside on channel 4 at 5.10.

Похожим способом извлекается информация из рекламных объявлений. Например, просматривая брошюры различных туристических фирм, человек обращает внимание на цены, возможные скидки, длительность тура, дополнительные услуги и т.п., выбирая наиболее подходящий вид отдыха. Для развития навыков этого вида чтения, ребятам можно предложить выполнить следующие упражнения:

Текст № 2.

ISLAND ESCAPE

SUMMER CRUISING 2003

7 NIGHT CRUISES FROM JUST £649pp

Departures: 4 June to Aug '03

Island cruises is a joint venture between Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines and First Choice offering you a new style in cruising!! It's a more relaxed, informal and innovative style of cruising. The new concept is "ad-lib" dining - where you are able to sit where you like and dine at a time that suits you! Still, there is an la carte restaurant on board, if you'd prefer to reserve your dining for those special occasions. When it's time to dine you can dress up as much or as little as you like with the 'smart casual' dress code to suit the 'smart casual' atmosphere onboard.

Attractions onboard the 40.000 tons Island Escape include a gym and the health club, swimming pool with sunbathing decks, 6 bars, 3 restaurants, duty-free shopping, cyber-centre, plus a whole range of activities and entertainment including the onboard nightclub and casino. All cabins provide a high standard of comfort.

Both cruises offer two journey of discovery - a chance to visit a variety of the best destinations in the Mediterranean coupled with numerous shore excursions.

 

Luxurious Mini

Cruises to Spain

 

3 great nights aboard the superb'Pride of Bilbao'

The largest cruise ferry sailing out of the UK.

Depart Portsmouth every Sat & Tues until December 18

  • Live entertainment
  • 2 Cinemas
  • Casino
  • 4 Bars
  • 3 Restaurants
  • Indoor Swimming Pool

Fares start from only £49 pp

Depending on season

 

To book, telephone:( open daily inc Sat/Sun)

(01306744300

 

One Price for

Luxury

 

All Sandals Ultra All-Inclusive resorts for couples only we provide the very best all included in the price of your holiday. All sporting activities from tennis to scuba diving (with free tuition) are included, or do nothing and relax at one of our spas. Experience the best choice of up to eight superb restaurants per resort and the most magnificent beachfront rooms and suits. One more reason why we have been voted The World's Best by travel agents worldwide for the past eight years.

 

0800 742 742

www.sandals.co.uk

 

2 Fantastic All-Inclusive Cruises to the

Canary Islands

Christmas Party Cruise

7 Nights departing December 21st

New Year Party Cruise

7 Nights departing December 28th

 

All inclusive!

YES!

Includes all drinks!

Ports of call: Tenerife, Lanzarote, Agadir(Morocco)

Madeira, Gran Canaria and Tenerife.

Was from £1135

Now from only

£699

PER PERSON

Call Cruise World on 08707431000

Open weekdays and Saturday 9am-6pm and Sunday 10am-6pm

Retail agents for ATOL Holders Offers Subject to availability.

 

Text 2

Read the receipt and answer the questions.

 

What is the motto of Sainsbury? - (Making life taste better)

How much did vanilla yoghurt cost?- (0.39 p.)

Did the customer buy any apples?- (no, he didn’t.)

How much money did the customer give to the cashier? – (10 pounds)

When did the customer go shopping?- (on the 11th of July in 2005.)

 

Для развития навыков ознакомительного чтения можно выполнить упражнения, предложив детям следующее здание: Прочитайте краткое описание нескольких фильмов и определите, к какому жанру относится каждый из них.

 

Текст № 4

  1. Ransom

Stars: Mel Gibson, Rene Russo, Gary Sinise, Lili Taylor

Director: Ron Howard

Gibson plays millionaire airline whose perfect family life is hijacked when kidnappers snatch his son and demand $2 mln ransom. He agrees to pay, but when the drop goes wrong, Mullen appears on TV to offer the money as a bounty on their heads – dea d or alive.

Despite the fact that his distraught wife (Russo), the FBI and the public moral majority improve him to reverse his decision, so Mullen stands firm, believing that it is the only way to save his son's life. As the stakes rise, on the other side of the fence, Mullen's powerful frustration and agonistic desperation is mirrored by cop-turned kidnapper Jimmy Shaker (Sinise), who can only watch hopelessly as his perfect crime crumbles before his eyes.(1997)***

  1. The Negotiator

Stars: Samuel L. Jackson, Kevin Spacey, David Morse, Ron Rifkin

Director: F Gary Gray

Samuel L. Jackson, a police hostage negotiator, is framed for murder. Desperate to prove himself innocent, he takes some hostages of his own. Kevin Spacey is brought in to "out-negotiate" the top negotiator. A perfect combination of high tension and edge-of-seat action makes this performance to a must-see. (1998)****

  1. Daylight

Stars: Sylvester Stallone, Amy Brenneman

Director: Rob Cohen

A gigantic explosion rips through the commuter tunnel that acts umbilical cord between New Jersey and Manhattan, sealing both ends, There seems little hope for the handful of survivors trapped under the Hudson River, especially when water begins to gush in by the gallon. Only ex- Emergency Medical Chief Kit Latura (Stallone) can save the day, and perhaps even exorcise a few past ghosts in the process.(1998)***

  1. The Lost World

Stars: Jeff Goldblum, Julianne Moor, Alice Howard, etc.

Director: Steven Spielberg

A group of dinosaurs has left their island. Ex InGen director John Hammond has packed a team of experts to record the creatures before it's too late. But it is not only them who are interested in capturing the dinos, white hunter Roland Tembo and his bad guys want to catch them for a new park in San Diego.(1998)****

  1. Liar Liar

Stars: Jim Carrey, Maura Tierney, Justin Cooper.

Director: Tom Shadyak.

Fletcher Read (Jim Carrey) is a hot-shot lawyer who lies to people throughout most of his working day. Even his own son Max knows what his dad's job involves.

So when Fletch fails to turn up for his son's fifth birthday party, the little boy makes a special wish - that his dad will be uncapable of telling a lie, only the truth for the next 24 hours. His wish is granted, but it leads to terrible and comic consequences for Fletch's day. (1997)****

  1. Overboard

Stars: Goldie Hawn, Kurt Russel.

Director: Garry Marshall

A spoilt heiress (Goldie Hawn) loses her memory when she falls of her luxury yacht. When she wakes up in hospital, a carpenter (Kurt Russel) who she has cheated claims her as his wife and takes her home to look after his unruly brood of children.(1987)****

  1. Addicted to Love

Director: Griffin Dunne

Stars: Meg Ryan, Matthew Broderick, Kelly Preston, Tcheky Karyo

The boyish Broderick plays Sam, an astronomer who doesn't notice that his gorgeous girlfriend Linda (Preston) is bored with life in the middle of nowhere. When she packs her bags and leaves for New York, he quickly follows only to discover if she has already met new lover, a comically suave French restaurateur, Anton (Karyo). Sam sets to spying on the couple while Anton's former lover, Maggie turns up. In fact, she is Linda, dressed-up in biker's clothes. Eventually, Linda and Sam fall in love with each other. (1998)***

 

Key:

Thriller

disaster movie

comedy

Ransom

The Negotiator

Daylight

The Lost World

Liar Liar

Addicted to Love

Overboard

 

Например, учащимся может быть предложено задание разделить текст на пять частей.

Magician breaks up bank robbery

An Amateur stage magician broke up a bank robbery when he waved his “magic” handkerchief – and made the bandit’s pistol disappear. But incredibly, the exconvict arrested for the attempted robbery walked out of court as a free man – because neither the police nor the magician were able to recover the missing weapon. Ten people saw the gunman pull a 38-caliber automatic and point it at a magician, but without the weapon as evidence the judge tossed the case out of the court. A police detective was frustrated. Oskar Gomes, 19, performed in nightclubs in and around Sao Paulo. He was held as a hero after a man standing in line just ahead of him stepped up to a teller’s window at the Banco National dos Trabalhadores de Sao Paulo, Brazil, and pulled a gun. Gomes tapped the gunman on the shoulder, waved a bright red handkerchief at him – and the weapon vanished. Then the heroic teenager helped an elderly guard overpower the stunned thief. Unfortunately, the young man reached to the emergency from instinct, and he was unable to recall exactly how he performed the feat of magic. So he couldn’t reverse the trick to retrieve the gun, and now a very dangerous criminal is back on the streets.

Key:

An Amateur stage magician broke up a bank robbery when he waved his “magic” handkerchief – and made the bandit’s pistol disappear. But incredibly, the exconvict arrested for the attempted robbery walked out of court as a free man – because neither the police nor the magician were able to recover the missing weapon.

Ten people saw the gunman pull a 38-caliber automatic and point it at a magician, but without the weapon as evidence the judge tossed the case out of the court. A police detective was frustrated.

Oskar Gomes, 19, performed in nightclubs in and around Sao Paulo. He was held as a hero after a man standing in line just ahead of him stepped up to a teller’s window at the Banco National dos Trabalhadores de Sao Paulo, Brazil, and pulled a gun. Gomes tapped the gunman on the shoulder, waved a bright red handkerchief at him – and the weapon vanished.

Then the heroic teenager helped an elderly guard overpower the stunned thief. Unfortunately, the young man reached to the emergency from instinct, and he was unable to recall exactly how he performed the feat of magic. So he couldn’t reverse the trick to retrieve the gun, and now a very dangerous criminal is back on the streets.

В ходе чтения отрывка из художественной литературы с целью извлечения полной информации учащимся можно предложить выделить две группы содержащихся в тексте высказываний – объективно существующие факты и мнения автора.

Текст № 5.

The policeman on the beat moved up the avenue impressively. The impressiveness was habitual and not for show, for spectators were few. The time was barely 10 o'clock at night, but chilly gusts of wind with a taste of rain in them had well nigh developed the streets.

Trying doors as he went, twirling his club with many intricate and artful movements, turning now and then to cast his watchful eye adown the pacific thoroughfare, the officer, with his stalwart form and slight swagger, made a fine picture of a guardian of the peace. The vicinity was one that kept early hours. Now and then you might see the lights or a cigar store or of an all-night lunch counter: but the majority of the doors belonged to business places that had long since been closed.

When about midway of a certain block the policeman suddenly slowed his walk. In the doorway of a darkened hardware store a man leaned, with an unlighted cigar in his mouth.

As the policeman walked up to him the man spoke up quickly.

'It's all right, officer,' he said, reassuringly. 'I'm just waiting for a friend. It's an appointment made twenty years ago. Sounds a little funny to you, doesn't it? Well, I'll explain if you'd like to make certain it's all straight. About that long ago there used to be a restaurant where this store stands - 'Big Joe' Brady's restaurant.'

'Until five years ago,' said the policeman. 'It was torn down then.'

The man in the doorway struck a match and lit his cigar. The light showed a pale, square-jawed face with keen eyes, and a little white scar near his right eyebrow. His scarfpin was a large diamond, oddly set.

"Twenty years ago to-night,' said the man, 'I dined here at 'Big Joe' Brady's with Jimmy Wells, my best chum, and the finest chap in the… etc.   (from 0. Henry's Short Stories.)

Key:

Facts

Opinions

  • The time was barely 10 o'clock at night.
  • It was dark.
  • There were two men in the street – a stranger and a policeman.
  • The policeman moved impressively.
  • chilly gusts of wind,
  • His scarfpin was a large diamond, oddly set.
 

 

Данные примеры иллюстрируют прием работы, а именно деление на категории, который может быть использован в различных учебных ситуациях.

Заполнение пропусков невозможно без понимания всех перечисленных в тексте деталей. Например, учащиеся получают текст, в котором каждое девятое слово пропущено. Задача учащихся – заполнить пропуски подходящими по смыслу словами.

Текст № 6.

THE CAT

Our cats were first tamed in Egypt.

There______ many kinds of cats: white cats, black cats, ______ cats, red cats: cats with long tails, cats ______ bushy tails, cats with no tails at all. ______ are clean and pretty. They are very wise, ______ can find their way anywhere. You can make ______ friends with cats, but they are not so _______ as dogs. They are more shy and independent. _______ cat has a nice coat. It is made ______ fur, and the fur is very thick and ______. The cat's feet have sharp claws. It can ______ them in, then its paws are soft. The _______ eyes are green and yellow. It can see _______ the dark and in the light. The light ______ the day is too strong for its eyes, _______ it often shuts them. But at night, when ______ is only a little light, it opens its _______ very wide. When the cat is happy, it ______. It says, "Purr, purr."

Key: are, grey, with, cats, and, great, loving, the, of, warm, pull, cat's, in, of, and, there, eyes, sings (if students used a word different from what the key is giving, but suitable for the context, it shouldn't be considered a mistake).

В заключении хотелось бы отметить, что чтение на иностранном языке способствует повышению коммуникативно - познавательной мотивации, положительно воздействует на личностно-эмоциональное состояние учащихся. Работа над текстом выполняет две основные функции: познавательную и воспитательную.

 

 

 

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