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Structure and functions of the skin

Методическое пособие Для самостоятельной работы студентов

Пояснительная записка 3
Урок 1. Строение кожи 4
Урок 2. Функции кожи 7
Контрольные вопросы………………………………………………...10
Список использованной литературы 11
Пояснительная записка
Учебное пособие для  самостоятельной работы студентов составлено в соответствии с требованиями ФГОС среднего профессионального образования по дисциплине «Английский язык».
    Настоящее пособие предназначено для  студентов следующих специальностей:
                                        060101 «Лечебное дело»                          
                      060604 «Лабораторная диагностика»
060301 «Фармация»
   Цель пособия - подготовить учащихся к чтению и переводу со словарем оригинальной медицинской  литературы средней трудности. Пособие содержит тексты: «Строение кожи», «Функции кожи», упражнения и контрольные вопросы по теме.
  В текстах содержится лексика и грамматические структуры, характерные для данной темы. 
   К текстам даются упражнения, цель которых - закрепление лексического и грамматического материала. Система лексических упражнений предусматривает: 1) нахождение в текстах ответов на вопросы; 2) нахождение предложений по смысловым опорам; 3) перевод словосочетаний; 4) перевод текстов со словарем и др.  
   Данное пособие рассчитано на тех, кто уже имеет базовую начальную подготовку по английскому языку: знаком с основными грамматическими категориями, владеет определенным объемом лексических единиц и речевыми моделями. 
   Основной целью пособия является развитие речевой деятельности. В основу пособия положен принцип коммуникативно-деятельностного обучения, поэтому в центре внимания находится материал, направленный на формирование коммуникативной компетенции в сфере профессионального общения.
   Система упражнений способствует активному усвоению лексики и грамматического материала. 
     Для более полного раскрытия темы к пособию прилагается мультимедийная презентация по теме «Строение и функции кожи».
                               Lesson 1 
Text A.  SKIN
Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates. Other animal coverings such as the arthropod exoskeleton have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition. The adjective cutaneous means  "of the skin" (from Latin cutis, skin). In mammals, the skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Skin of a different nature exists in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals which appear to be hairless. The skin interfaces with the environment and is the first line of defense from external factors. For example, the skin plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, and the production of vitamin D folates. Severely damaged skin may heal by forming scar tissue. This is sometimes discoloured and depigmented. The thickness of skin also varies from location to location on an organism. In humans for example, the skin located under the eyes and around the eyelids is the thinnest skin in the body at 0.5 mm thick, and is one of the first areas to show signs of aging such as "crows feet" and wrinkles. The skin on the palms and the soles of the feet is 4 mm thick and the thickest skin in the body. The speed and quality of wound healing in skin is promoted by the reception of estrogen. 
Fur is dense hair. Primarily, fur augments the insulation the skin provides but can also serve as a secondary sexual characteristic or as camouflage. On some animals, the skin is very hard and thick, and can be processed to create leather. Reptiles and fish have hard protective scales on their skin for protection, and birds have hard feathers, all made of tough β-keratins. Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier to passage of chemicals and is often subject to osmosis and diffusive forces. For example, a frog sitting in an anesthetic solution would be sedated quickly, as the chemical diffuses through its skin.
Exercise 1.
Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
1.  наружное покрытие 
2.  млекопитающие 
3.  первая линия защиты 
4.  тончайший слой 
5.  регуляция температуры  
6.  защитная чешуя 
7.  кожа ладоней
 8.  потеря влаги 
9.  заживление ран 
10. признаки старения
Exercise 2.
Quote the sentences of the text in which the following words are used:
     different developmental origin, the largest organ, the first line of defense from external factors, scar tissue, discoloured, 4 mm thick, hard feathers, Amphibian skin, anesthetic solution.
Exercise 3.
Put the sentences in Passive Voice:
1. The skin (to compose) of two layers.
2. The dermis (to make up) of several layers of cells.
3. The thickness of the outer layer (to vary).
4. The dermis (to contain) blood vessels and nerves.
5. The cells of the epidermis (to require) no supply of blood.
6. Melanin (to produce) by special cells in the dermis.
7. The presence of melanin (to cause) skin colour.
Exercise 4.
Translate the following sentences:
1. The dermis is made of connective tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves.
2. The various skin sensations, such as touch, pain, pressure, heat, and cold, are felt trough these nerves.
3. The sweat glands are situated deep in the dermis.
4. They collect fluid that contains waste products and carry it away in canals that end in pores on the skin surface, where it is deposited as sweat.
Exercise 5.
Say what you have learnt about the structure of the skin.
Exercise  6.
Fill in the table:
Skin layer Contains blood vessels and nerves Contains melanin Comparison in thickness
          -               + thinner than the
          +               - thicker than the
                                                            Text B
The skin is the largest organ of the body, with a total area of about 20 square feet. The skin protects us from microbes and the elements, helps regulate body temperature, and permits the sensations of touch, heat, and cold.
Skin has three layers:
The epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone.
The dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands.
The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue.
The skin’s colour is created by special cells called melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin. Melanocytes are located in the epidermis.
1. Read the text and translate it using a dictionary if necessary.
   2. Compose the plan  of it.
                                    Lesson  2
                                       Text A.   Skin Functions.
Skin has four main functions, as follows:
Protection: As the first line of defense against the external environment, the epidermis is continuously replenishing and shedding tens of thousands of dead cells every minute to protect the body from:
Mechanical impact: Skin acts as the first physical barrier to withstand any pressure, stress or trauma. When this mechanical impact is stronger than the skin, a wound will occur, as a breakage through skin with loss of one or more of the skin functions.
Fluids: Due to the tight packing of cells in the outermost layer of the epidermis (the stratum corneum layer), our skin helps us retain necessary body fluids and moisture, and protects us from the absorption of external fluids or liquids. We can bathe, swim and walk in the rain without concern. Our skin prevents the absorption of any harmful substance or excessive water loss through skin.
Radiation: If it weren’t for the skin, the ultraviolet light (UV light) radiating from sun would damage the underlying tissue in our bodies. This protection is provided by the melanin pigmentation in the epidermis. The skin and its pigmentation helps protect us from many medical illnesses like skin cancers, but because it doesn’t offer complete protection, we should avoid excessive exposure to sunlight by using sunblock and adequate clothing.
Infections: The top layer of skin is covered with a thin, oily coat of moisture that prevents most foreign substances or organisms (such as bacteria, viruses and fungi) from entering the skin. The epidermis also has Langerhans cells, which help to regulate immune responses to pathogens that come into contact with the skin.
Thermal regulation: Temperature regulation is aided by the skin through the sweat glands and blood vessels in the dermis. Increased evaporation of the secreted sweat decreases the body temperature. Vasodilation (relaxing of small blood vessels) in the dermis makes it easier for the body to release some heat and lower the body temperature through skin. In vasoconstriction (contracting small blood vessels), the dermis retains some of the internal body temperature. The fatty subcutaneous layer of the skin also acts as an insulation barrier, helping to prevent the loss of heat from the body and decreasing the effect of cold temperatures.
Sensation: An important function of the skin dermis is to detect the different sensations of heat, cold, pressure, contact and pain. Sensation is detected through the nerve endings in the dermis which are easily affected by wounds. This sensation in the skin plays a role in helping to protect us from burn wounds. The skin's sensation can protect us from first and second degree burns, but in cases of third degree burns it is less effective, as we don’t feel any pain due to the fact that the nerve endings in the skin are destroyed (which indicates a more severe injury).
Endocrine function: Skin is one of our main sources of vitamin D, through the production of Cholecalciferol (D3) in the two lowermost layers of the epidermis (the stratum basale and stratum spinosum).
Exercises 1.
Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
1. Защита
2. Окружающая среда
3. Ультрафиолетовые лучи
4. Пигментация
5. Инородные тела
6. Понижать температуру тела
7. Подкожный слой
8. Нервные окончания
9. Чувствительность кожи
10. Источник витамина
Exercises 2.
Quote the sentences of the text in which the following words are used:
Continuously replenishing, dead cells, first physical barrier, breakage through skin, to 
regulate immune responses, to release some heat, internal body temperature, third degree burns, small blood vessels, an insulation, underlying tissue.
Exercises 3.
Put the sentences in Passive Voice:
1. Skin color (to cause) by the presence of melanin.
2. The top layer of skin (to cover) with a thin, oily coat of moisture.
3. This protection (to provide) by the melanin pigmentation in the epidermis.
4. The epidermis (to make up) of several layers.
5. The dermis (to compose) of a fibers.
6. Temperature regulation (to aid)  by the skin.
7. Sensation (to detect) through the nerve endings.
Exercises 4.
Translate the following sentences:
1. The epidermis also helps to regulate immune responses.
2. The fatty subcutaneous layer of the skin also acts as an insulation barrier.
3. An important function of the skin dermis is to detect the different sensations of      heat, cold, pressure, contact and pain.
4. This sensation in the skin plays a role in helping to protect us from burn wounds.
5. The skin's sensation can protect us from first and second degree burns.
6. Our skin prevents the absorption of any harmful substance or excessive water loss through skin.
Exercises 5.
Say what you have learnt about the functions of the skin.
Text B
     What is the function of the skin.
Throughout history, people have done some strange things to their skin. From the 15th century to the 19th century, for instance, pale white skin was in fashion. In order to achieve this look, many fashionable women and men would bleach their skin with a mixture of lead and vinegar to stay on top of the trend. Unsurprisingly, the practice was extremely dangerous, since pores would absorb the arsenic and, over time, slowly poison the blood and major organs. Many other cosmetics had various combinations of lead, arsenic and mercury that peeled away skin and left terrible scars .
Today, we fortunately know a lot more about our skin and what it's supposed to do. Your skin is actually your body's largest organ, with a surface area of over six feet (1.8 meters). It actually makes up around 16 percent of your total body weight [source: BBC]. Skin is constantly changing, too, replenishing itself at a rate of about 30,000 to 40,000 cells a minute. This means that each year you lose and replace roughly nine pounds (4.1 kilograms) of skin.
The skin is made up of three layers. The epidermis is the outermost layer, or the layer you can see and touch. The dermis is the layer below the epidermis. It's right below the epidermis, and it contains nerve endings, blood vessels, and oil and sweat glands. The dermis also holds collagen and elastic, proteins that keep skin firm and strong. Finally, there's the subcutaneous layer, which is made up mostly of fat. Each layer of your skin performs specific functions that help to cover and protect your body, regulate body temperature and provide you with a sense of touch.
1. Read the text and translate it using a dictionary if necessary.
   2. Compose the plan  of it.
Check yourself !
 Answer the following questions:
1. What are the layers of the skin?
2. What is the difference in the cells of the surface layer and the deeper layer?
3. What does each papilla contain?
4. What does perspiration consist of?
5. Which layer of the skin – dermis or epidermis – contains blood vessels?
6. Which layer is thicker: dermis or epidermis?
7. What kinds of cells – living or non-living – are in the epidermis?
8. What amount of melanin – the least or the most – does the skin of the white race       contain?
Список использованной литературы:
1. Марковина И.Ю., Громова Г.Е. Английский язык для медицинских                           училищ и колледжей, - Москва, «Академия», 2010 г.
2. Козырева  Л.Г.,  Шадская  Т.В.   Английския  язык  для  медицинских колледжей и училищ, - «Феникс», 2011. – 320 с.
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin
4. http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/skin
5. http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk
6. http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments

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